Peripheral Arterial Disease

What is Peripheral Arterial Disease

Peripheral arterial disease is also known as peripheral vascular disease or PAD. This is a circulatory issue where blood flow becomes restricted to your limbs. This is often a result of plaque buildup or atherosclerosis in your arteries. While this disease usually occurs in your legs, it may also reduce blood flow to your heart or brain.

When you develop the peripheral arterial disease (PAD), your extremities don’t receive enough blood flow to meet demand. This causes symptoms, most notably leg pain when walking (claudication).

Peripheral artery disease is likely a sign of fatty deposits in your arteries. This is often called atherosclerosis. You can treat peripheral artery disease by quitting tobacco, exercising, and eating a healthy diet.


Approximately half of the individuals with PAD experience mild to no symptoms. The most common symptom is leg pain while walking. The severity of claudication can vary in pain.

Signs and symptoms of peripheral artery disease are:

  • Fatigue or cramping of your muscles in the calf, thigh, hip, or buttock may signal you have PAD. This commonly occurs after walking a certain distance.
  • Leg numbness or weakness
  • Coldness in your lower leg or foot, especially when compared with the other side
  • pain in your toes or feet while resting may demonstrate an advancing PAD case.
  • An open wound or ulcer on your toes or feet. This is often at a pressure point on foot. An ulcer can progress to gangrene. These symptoms require immediate medical attention.
  • Hair loss or slower hair growth on your feet and legs
  • Shiny skin on your legs
  • No pulse or a weak pulse in your legs or feet
  • Erectile dysfunction in men

Causes of peripheral vascular disease

peripheral arterial disease Peripheral vascular disease is often caused by fatty deposits or plaque that builds upon the artery walls. This is also known as atherosclerosis, and it can reduce your blood flow.

Often, atherosclerosis is discussed with heart disease and can affect any artery. However, when it occurs in arteries supplying your limbs, it is referred to as a peripheral arterial disease.

PAD causes include smoking, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure, diabetes, kidney failure, and obesity. It is possible genetic factors could play a role. Furthermore, diabetes is known to be a cause. Less commonly, blood vessel inflammation, injury to your limbs. Also, the unusual anatomy of your ligaments or muscles or radiation exposure can cause PAD.

Diagnosing Peripheral Arterial Disease

Some of the tests to diagnose peripheral artery disease are:

Physical exam

A physical examination can find Peripheral Vascular Disease.  A weak or absent pulse below a narrowed area of your artery often causes the diagnosis. Another method is the whooshing sounds over your arteries heard with a stethoscope.  Additionally, evidence of poor wound healing in the area where your blood flow is can be a sign. Furthermore, decreased blood pressure in your affected limb is a symptom.

Ankle-brachial index (ABI)

This is a standard test used to diagnose PAD. It compares your ankle’s blood pressure with your arm’s blood pressure. To get a blood pressure reading, a regular blood pressure cuff, and a particular ultrasound device to evaluate blood pressure and flow. Another method would be to walk on a treadmill. This method uses readings taken before and immediately after exercising. This can capture the severity of the narrowed arteries during walking.


Special ultrasound imaging techniques can diagnose PAD. Doppler ultrasound can help your doctor evaluate blood flow through your blood vessels. This determines blocked or narrowed arteries.


An angiography uses a dye (contrast material) injected into your blood vessels. This allows us to view blood flow through your arteries as it happens. Your doctor can trace the flow of the contrast material using imaging techniques.

Blood tests

A blood sample can measure your cholesterol and triglycerides and check for diabetes.

PAD Complications

PAD is a serious condition. Clogged arteries caused by decreased blood flow can cause painful cramping while walking or exercising. Other side effects include numbness, weakness, or tingling in the legs and feet and burning pain in the feet and toes. In severe cases, Peripheral artery disease of known for causing critical limb ischemia. This is a condition that begins as open sores that do not heal. These sores will progress to tissue depth, causing gangrene and sometimes requiring amputation of the affected limb.

Additionally, a significant complication caused by peripheral vascular disease is the risk of a stroke or heart attack. Atherosclerosis causes the signs and symptoms of peripheral artery disease and isn’t limited to your legs. Fat deposits also build up in arteries supplying blood to your heart and brain.

PAD Prevention

The best way to prevent peripheral arterial disease is to maintain a healthy lifestyle. That means:

  • Quit smoking if you’re a smoker.
  • If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under reasonable control.
  • Exercise regularly. Aim for 30 to 45 minutes several times a week after you’ve gotten your doctor’s OK.
  • Lower your cholesterol and blood pressure levels, if applicable.
  • Eat foods that are low in saturated fat.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.

PAD Treatments

To salvage the limbs, PAD is medically treated with prescribed medications. These medications treat high cholesterol and control blood pressure. As well as decrease pain while walking to increase exercise. They also aim to prevent the buildup of plaque or the formation of blood clots.

Peripheral artery disease is also treated using minimally invasive interventional radiology procedures. Angioplasty opens a blocked artery with a medical balloon, enabling better blood flow. Additionally, in some cases, the affected arteries need to remain open using a stent, which is a small metal cylinder.

Another procedure is a stent graft. This procedure uses a stent covered with synthetic fabric. This stent is inserted in the blood vessels to bypass affected arteries.

Moreover, a third interventional radiology procedure for peripheral artery disease is atherectomy. This procedure uses a small catheter at the site of the blockage. This catheter shaves the plaque away from the inside of the artery and removes it from the patient’s body.

Occasionally, PAD may be severe enough that a medical team has no choice but to perform surgery. This may be the only way to remove blockages or create bypasses around the clogged areas.

Coastal Vascular Center is Equipped to Treat Your Peripheral Arterial Disease

Coastal Vascular Center is the Houston area’s peripheral arterial disease specialist.

We are an outpatient clinic. All procedures occur in a safe environment with highly skilled physician staff. Patients find it more convenient to visit our clinic because of our personalized care. Coastal Vascular Center specializes in concierge medicine and boutique-level patient care.

Additionally, our treatment center also treats vascular diseases, uterine fibroids, and dialysis management.  Coastal Vascular Center also focuses on minimally invasive procedures so that our patients experience a faster recovery time.

Dr. Ayar’s Experience

Dr. Divyang C. Ayar operates Coastal Vascular Center.  He is a board-certified radiologist and a vascular specialist. Dr. Ayar has extensive experience treating patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease.  His certification is in both diagnostic radiology and interventional and vascular radiology.  With over 20 years of experience, Dr. Ayar understands your needs and concerns as a patient. He has performed thousands of successful vein management operations.

Under the direction of Dr. Ayar, Coastal Vascular Center specializes in treating the whole spectrum of venous disease. We treat – peripheral arterial disease, spider veins, and varicose veins. Additionally, we treat venous ulcers, leg swelling, and deep vein thrombosis. Coastal Vascular Center utilizes the most advanced techniques available to provide minimally invasive treatment of venous disease.

Peripheral Arterial Disease Information

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